Genre: before reading this chapter discussing the element of genre I believed that the word only defined the genres of book. For example:

  • Fiction
  • Romance
  • Fantasy
  • Horror


The list continues, but after reading Writer/Designer genre can be created very easily. It can be various styles of music, prezi presentations, and illustrated comics. A genre can be created very easily.


Writer/Designer describes a method of Researching Your Project Idea




Writing for an Audience, from Language: A Reader for Writers, and Writer/Designer overlap on the element of audience. Writer/Designer: Chapter Two touches on the element of audience by deconstructing the individuals elements of rhetorical analysis, but it also comes audience from the perspective of design. Writing for an Audience approaches the topic of audience as a gap that must be closed, or bridged, between the author and the reader. They both have overlapping themes, yet they give an approach for audience from different vantage points.

Writer / Designer (Chapter Two): Audience



  • Audience is the intended readership for your text.
  • There are Primary and Secondary audiences:
            • Primary: intended audience
            • Secondary: outside of the intended audience
  • Consider the values and opinions of both the primary and secondary audiences.



Are You a Mac or a Mac User? How the Language of Identity Persuades


So how did these commercials establish millions of identities?

Cognitive scientist, Julie Sedivy, says, “I’ve witness…how compelling the need can be to align consumer behavior with a sense of self, and how this need can override even the most careful deliberation.”

 Practical Business Application
  • Businesses need consumers to purchase their products.
  • So how do they sell the most amount of a product?  Advertisement
  • Businesses are now targeting consumer identities to boost their profits.

The ability to manipulate language has allowed business coportaions to profit greatly of consumers. They establish a link between a perceived identify and their product.  For example in the Mac vs. PC commercial, Apple was promoting that the PC had constant issues and was dorky, while the apple was new, cool, and always doing amazing things.

Should Businesses Be Doing This? 
  • Businesses are now targeting regional linguistic and slang to develop different marketing campaigns in specific areas.
  • They have seen the success of other companies and now using language to maximize their profit margins.

This is a major reason why Apple is a major corporation in the United States now.


Stock Price of Apple over 5 years





Blackboard with mathematics sketches - vector illustration

Complicated Economics Problem

Economics, when most people here the word they think of numbers or money, but economics is much more than formulas and equations.  It is a social science that studies the rational decisions we as human beings make, which makes Language a key factor in the study of human decisions.

Articles from Language A Reader for Writers, Gita DasBender: Body Language (p 18) 

  • Understanding gesture and other nonoverable language

Language and Thought (p 12) 

  • Understanding how humans create symbols and communicate with them

Writing for an Audience (p 74) 

  • Analyzes the writer-reader relationships
  • Writers must share knowledge, not just tell it

Is Your Language Making You Broke and Fat? How Language Can Shape Thinking and Behavior (and How It Can’t)  (p 32)

  • Analyzes the intersection of language, culture, and society

Which is the Best Language to Learn? (p 40)

  • Is French the most useful language to learn?
  • Discusses the advantages of learning several languages

Politics and the English Language (p 203) 

  • A lack of imagery and precision are now “ugly” uses in the English Language
  • Language should be used as an instrument of expression

Are you a Mac or a Mac User? How the Language of Identity Persuades (p 230)

  • Analyzes how people identify with advertisements
  • Verbal persuasion

Investigating Globish (p 297)

  • Simple language is easier to spread globally

Example of how Language and Economics relate to one another:   (Keith Chen is a Behavioral Economist and Economics Professor from the Yale University School of Management)